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Monday, October 5, 2015

Class 8th : History-Chapter 13: Afghans Take Over Kashmir:::



History
Chapter 13: Afghans Take Over Kashmir
Answer the following questions:
Q1. Identify the factors responsible for chaos, confusion and uncertainty in Kashmir during Afghan period.
Ans. Afghan rule started in Kashmir in 1753 A.D and remained up to 1819 A.D. Kashmir, always remained, a disturbed place. Main factors responsible for chaos were the weak successors of Mughal Kings. Less knowledge and care of Ahmad Shah Abdali towards Kashmir lead to the successors to work independently. This resulted in many wars and weak polity. Imposition of tax on every community and every class of people was another factor responsible for these conditions. Tribal rivalries, jealousies, fatal rush for power were some other factors for uncertain and disturbed conditions in Kashmir.

Q2. Why did people complain against the taxation structure under Afghan?
Ans. Tax was imposed on every commodity and every class of people. Almost every Governor was trying to extract money from exhausted people of Kashmir. People suffered a lot due to this unjust and over taxation. Taxation structure was totally wrong. That is why people complain against the taxation structure under Afghan.
Q3. Describe the relations between the Afghan Kings and their Governors in Kashmir.
Ans. After the takeover of Kashmir by Afghans, the situation in Afghanistan worsened. As a result, their Governors got an opportunity to take the power into their hands. So there was a continuous war between Afghan Kings and their Governors in Kashmir. The situation was very critical earlier during the reign of Afghan Kings but later it became stable.
Q4. State in brief the administration setup in Kashmir under the Sikh rule.
Ans. Under the Sikh rule, the province of Kashmir was divided into 36 Parganas and a Pargan into Zilas. A Zila constituted many villages. The province was administered through a governor called Nazim. Sahib-i-Kar supervised the revenue affairs at provincial level and Qanungo collected the revenue in the Parganas. Shiqdar, Sazawal, Muqqadam, Patwari and Tehwildar functioned at the village level. One half the produce was the state share. Peasants had to pay additional tax as two to four Traks per Kharwar. In overall administration, people suffered a lot.
Q5. Define Traki.
Ans. Traki was a kind of tax based on two to four Traks per Kharwar paid by the peasants under Sikh-rule administration.
Q6. How were Galwans suppressed?
Ans. Galwans were the professionals who took care of ponies and horses of the villagers during the grazing season and were paid for this service. But they had turned to horse robbers before the Sikh-rule. This posed threat to all people and administration. So it was important for Sikhs to suppress them. Kripa Ram was the first Governor who tried to suppress them by putting three of them to death. Then Kanwar Sher Singh sent a strong force, killed eight Galwans and arrested seventeen. Arrested Galwans were hanged to death at Amira Kadal. Then Colonel Mohan Singh sent his army to Kamraz and proceeded himself with army to Maraz to suppress the activities. Some of the Galwans were killed, some hanged and freed after cutting their hands. Some of the Galwans fearing stern action, left the valley for Baltistan and Ladakh and took to their original profession of rearing horses to earn livelihood.
(Short answer for Q6…………)
Ans. Galwans were the professionals who took care of ponies and horses of the villagers during the grazing season and were paid for this service. But they had turned to horse robbers before the Sikh-rule. To suppress them, many of the Galwans were killed, hanged, arrested and freed after cutting their hands, by the different Governors time to time. This posed threat to many Galwans and they left the place and took their original profession.
Q7. Why do you think Ranjit Dev maintained diplomatic relations with contemporary powers?
Ans. During the reign of Ranjit Dev in Kashmir, the situation was worse, therefore to gain the political convenience, he maintained diplomatic relations with contemporary political powers. Due to this, Raja Ranjit Dev was considered as loyal to the Mughal throne. This resulted the smooth functioning of his administration.
Q8. When was Wam-he-Yig concluded? What were its main terms?
Ans. Wam-he-Yig was a formal instrument. It was concluded in July, 1752. Its main terms were as; Purik to continue with Tashi; no intimidation to travelers and traders between Ladakh and Kashmir or Baltistan or Delhi; the eldest son to the king and the youngers to be the Lama.
True or False:
(i). Kashmir came under Afghan rule under Ahmad Shah Abdali.
(ii). Amira Kadal was built by Azad Khan.
(iii). Birbal Dhar approached Ahmad Shah Abdali to conquer Kashmir.
(iv). The condition of people under Afghans was not satisfactory.
Ans.
(i). Kashmir came under Afghan rule under Ahmad Shah Abdali.                   True
(ii). Amira Kadal was built by Azad Khan.      False
(iii). Birbal Dhar approached Ahmad Shah Abdali to conquer Kashmir.         True
(iv). The condition of people under Afghans was not satisfactory.      True

Fill in the Blanks:
(a). _________ was the department introduced by Afghans levy tax on Shawl Industry.
(b). _________ Afghan governors ruled Kashmir during the period of _______ years.
(c). Hariparbat fort was built by __________.
Ans.
(a). Dag-i-Shawl was the department introduced by Afghans levy tax on Shawl Industry.
(b). 28 Afghan governors ruled Kashmir during the period of 67 years.
(c). Hariparbat fort was built by Atta Mohammad (Afghan Governor).

Choose the most correct answer from the given options:
(i). to maintain the law and order, the Sikh Governor suppressed
(a). Galwans   (b). Peasants   (c). Shawlbaf’s                        (d). None of these
Ans. (a). Galwans
(ii). Bahu fort was completed during the reign of
(a). Udhyanadev         (b). Ranjit Dev                        (c). Dhurj Dev             (d). Jasrat Dev
Ans. (b). Ranjit Dev
(iii). Bebujnama was written by
(a). Pir Hassan Shah   (b). Hamidullah Shahbadi       (c). Shah Alam                        (d). Ahmad Sha
Ans. (b). Hamidullah Shahbadi
(iv). Dogra invasion of Ladakh was led by
(a). Wazir Zorawar Singh      (b). George Bogle       (c). Dalai Lama           (d). None of these
Ans. (a). Wazir Zorawar Singh

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