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Thursday, April 30, 2015

History - Class 8th







Chapter 4- Colonialism
And Tribal Societies

Q2. State whether true or false:
(a) Jhum cultivators
plough the land and sow seeds.             False
(b) Cocoons were
bought from the Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase
price.                     True
(c) Birsa urged his
followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft
and sorcery.                        True
(d) The British
wanted to preserve the tribal way of life.      False
Q3. List problems did shifting cultivators face under British rule?


Ans. For
administrative and economic reasons, the British government tried settling the
jhum or shifting cultivators. However, settled plough cultivation did not prove
to be helpful to these jhum cultivators. They often suffered because their
fields did not produce good yields. The new forest laws also affected the lives
of the shifting cultivators. Shifting or jhum cultivation is usually done on
small patches of forest land. Under the forest laws, the British extended their
control over all forests and declared that forests were state property. Thus,
the jhum cultivators were prevented from practicing jhum cultivation freely.
Many were forced to move to other areas in search of work and livelihood.
Q4. How did the powers of tribal chiefs
change under colonial rule?
Ans. Under colonial
rule, the functions and powers of the tribal chiefs changed considerably.
Though they were allowed to keep their land titles over a cluster of villages
and rent out lands, the administrative, judicial and economic powers they
enjoyed before the arrival of the British were no longer in force. They were
required to follow the British laws, pay tribute to the British and discipline
the tribal groups on behalf of the colonial masters. As a result, they lost the
authority they had earlier enjoyed among their people, and were unable to
fulfil their traditional functions.
Q6. What was Birsa’s vision of a golden age? Why do you think such a
vision appealed to the people of the region?
Ans. Birsa talked
about a golden age, a satyug, an age of truth in which, like in the past, the
tribal people would live a good life, construct embankments, tap natural
springs, plant trees and orchards and practise cultivation to earn their
living. He talked of an age in which the tribals would not kill one another and
would live an honest life. His golden age consisted of a reformed tribal society
in which there was no place for vices like liquor, uncleanliness, witchcraft
and sorcery, and outside forces like the missionaries, Hindu landlords,
moneylenders, traders and the Europeans.


This vision was appealing to the tribal people as all the
vices and outside forces that Birsa talked about were indeed thought of by
everyone as the root causes of their misery and suffering.

Chapter 5 - Rebellion
of 1857 First War of Indep.

Q2. What did the British do to protect the
interests of those who converted to Christianity?
Ans. In 1850, a new
law was passed to make conversion to Christianity easier. This law allowed an
Indian who had converted to Christianity to inherit the property of his ancestors.
Q3. What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they
were asked to use?
Ans. The new
cartridges were suspected of being coated with the fat of cows and pigs. Both
Hindus and Muslim sepoys were offended by the introduction of these cartridges.
Their religious sentiments were affected, and this was the reason they refused
to use the cartridges. They felt that the British were trying to insult their
religions.
Q4. How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?
Ans. After the death
of Aurangzeb, Mughal emperors held only symbolic value. Bahadur Shah Zafar was
the last such Mughal emperor. During the 1857 revolt, the rebels needed someone
who would rule the land once the British were thrown out of the country. They
decided that this leader would have to be the Mughal emperor living in the Red
Fort, in Delhi. Though a reluctant leader at first, Bahadur Shah did play an
important role in the rebellion. Though Mughals had lost their earlier
authority, a Mughal emperor?s word still held importance for quite a number of
smaller rulers and chieftains. Bahadur Shah sent letters to all such chiefs and
rulers, urging them to come forward and support the rebellion. After the revolt
was suppressed, Bahadur Shah was tried in court and sentenced to life
imprisonment. He and his wife were sent to prison in Rangoon in October 1858.
He died in the Rangoon jail in November 1862.
Q5. Find out the
social causes of the revolt of 1857?
Ans. Since the
mid-eighteenth century, the power of the nawabs and rajas was on its decline.
The presence of British Residents in the courts further eroded their authority
and curtailed their freedom to administer their kingdoms. The various kingdoms
were forced to disband their armies and enter into a subsidiary alliance with
the British. The terms of the subsidiary alliance, and later, of the Doctrine
of Lapse were such that the East India Company slowly but surely took control
over the kingdoms one by one. From 1757 to 1857, the Company successfully
annexed various Indian states, virtually unopposed, by using a variety of
political, economic and diplomatic methods. It rarely had to use military
power.


Another reason for the confidence of the British was the
decline of the Mughal dynasty. The Company, through various measures, ensured
that the dynasty came to an end. The name of the Mughal king was removed from
the coins minted by the Company. It was also decided upon that Bahadur Shah
would be the last Mughal king and after his death, none of his descendents would
be recognised as kings.


The fact that apart from the Company there was no other
dominant authority in the Indian subcontinent, and the belief that there was
absolutely no threat to its authority together contributed to its confidence
about its position in India before May 1857. This is the reason why the revolt
and the threatening form it took came as a shock to the British.
Q6. What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar?s support to the rebellion have
on the people and the ruling families?
Ans. Though the
rebels were determined to bring the East India Company?s rule in the country to
an end, they were faced with the question as to who would rule the land once
the space of power fell vacant. The answer to this question lay in Red Fort, in
Delhi. That was where the aging Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar had been
residing. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal dynasty had declined and
many smaller power centres had begun asserting their authority. Yet, the word
of the Mughal king still held force for quite a number of ruling families.
Threatened by the expansion of the British rule, many of them felt that if the
Mughal emperor could rule again, they too would be able to rule their own
territories once more. When the rebel forces reached Red Fort, Bahadur Shah was
reluctant at first to take on the might of the British. However, he had to give
in, and was thus proclaimed their leader. Having this symbolic head inspired
the rebels to fight the British with renewed confidence, hope and courage. The
emperor wrote letters to the various chiefs and rulers of the country to come
forward and organise a confederacy of Indian states to fight the British. In
consequence of this action, the rebellion spread. The leadership of the Mughal
emperor seemed to provide legitimacy to it. Regiment after regiment mutinied,
and joined the rebel troops at Delhi, Kanpur and Lucknow. After them, the
people of various Indian towns and villages also rose up in rebellion and
rallied around local leaders, zamindars and chiefs. This not only strengthened
the rebel forces, but also gave a national character to the rebellion.
Q7. How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel
landowners of Awadh?
Ans. During the
revolt, the defeat of the British forces in a number of battles caused a number
of uprisings against the British in various Indian states. A widespread popular
rebellion developed in the region of Awadh in particular. The villages took to
arms and the landlords led them. After the defeat of the rebel forces, the
British had a two-pronged strategy to suppress the rebels and the rebellion. On
the one hand, they tried and hanged a number of rebel leaders who had
challenged their authority and could do so again in the future. On the other
hand, they tried their best to win back the loyalty of the people. They
announced reward for loyal landowners. They were assured that they would be
allowed to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands. Those who had
rebelled were told that if they submitted to the British, and if they had not
killed any white people, they would remain safe and their rights and claims to
land would not be denied.
Q8. State the changes the British introduced as a result of the
rebellion of 1857?
Ans. Changes in the
policies of the British after the suppression of the rebellion of 1857:


(i) British Crown took over the control of administration
? The British Parliament passed an Act in 1859, under which, the powers of the
East India Company were transferred to the British Crown. The British
government was now directly responsible for ruling India.


(ii) Provided a sense of security to the local rulers ?
The ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territories would
never be annexed by the British. However, they had to swear allegiance to the British
crown. They also abolished the Doctrine of Lapse, thereby allowing rulers to
pass on their kingdoms to adopted sons.


(iii) Provided a sense of security to landowners ?
Policies were made to protect landlords and zamindars, and give them security
of rights over their lands.


(iv) Reorganised the army ? The proportion of Indian
soldiers in the army was reduced and the number of European soldiers in the
army was increased.


(v) Treated the Muslims with suspicion and hostility ?
Considering them to be responsible for the rebellion in a big way, the British
confiscated the land and property of Muslims on a large scale.


(vi) Promised non-interference in the sphere of religion
? The British assured the people of India that their religious and social
practises would be respected and not interfered with.
Chapter 6- Colonialism
and the City

Q1. State true or false:
Ans. (a) Delhi
did not witness changes after 1857.           True
 (b) Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.         False
(c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities.         False
(d) British shifted capital to Delhi in 1911.          True
(e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.           False
Q2. Fill in the
blanks:
(a)  After the revolt of 1857 the British resorted
to                         in New Delhi.
(b) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the 
(c) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad   were
(d) The havelis were converted in to
Q3.Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.
 Ans.

 
Q4. Who lived in the ?white? areas in cities such as Madras?
Ans. In colonial
cities such as Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, the living spaces of Indians and
the British were sharply separated. Indians lived in the  black 
areas, while the British lived in well laid out ?white? areas.
Q5. Define de-urbanization?
Ans. For
administrative purposes, the British divided colonial India into three
Presidencies, which in turn led to the rise in the importance of the Presidency
cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. These cities became the centres of
British power in the different regions of India. New factories came up, trade
developed.


At the same time that these cities were expanding, the
towns and cities that manufactured specialised goods declined due to a drop in
the demand for what they produced. Old trading centres and ports could not
survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres. Similarly, earlier centres
of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and
new centres of administration emerged. This process is described as
de-urbanisation.
Q6. Why did the British choose to hold a
grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?
Ans. Though Calcutta
was the capital of the British, they were aware of the symbolic importance of
Delhi. It was the city where the Mughals had ruled. It was the same city that
had become the rebel stronghold in the rebellion of 1857, a rebellion that had
momentarily threatened the collapse of the British rule in India. It was
therefore important to celebrate British power with pomp and show at this very
place. So, a grand Durbar to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India
was held in Delhi, in 1877. Later, in 1911, a Durbar was held in Delhi to
celebrate the crowning of King George V. It was at this Durbar that the
decision to shift the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi was announced.
What these displays did was to show to the people of India the ultimate power
and supremacy of the British.
Q7. How did the Old City of Delhi change under the British rule?
Ans. The Old City of
Delhi was constructed as a walled city with 14 gates, adjoining a fort-palace
complex, with the river Jamuna flowing near it. The city was characterised by
mosques, havelis, crowded mohallas, narrow and winding lanes and bylanes and
water channels. The British gained control of Delhi in 1803. Before the revolt
of 1857, the British adjusted themselves to the Mughal culture of the Old City
by living in the Walled City, enjoying Urdu/Persian culture and poetry, and
participating in local festivals. The Delhi College was established in 1792,
which led to a great intellectual flowering in the sciences as well as the
humanities.
The sprawling Civil
Lines area came up in the North of the city. This was the place where the
British began living. The Delhi College was turned into a school, and shut down
in 1877. The British constructed a new city, known as New Delhi, South of the
Old City. Built as a complete contrast to the Old City, New Delhi became the
centre of power. The Old City, meanwhile, was pushed into neglect.
Q8. How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?
Ans. In 1947, due to
the Partition, there was a massive transfer of populations on both sides of the
new border. As a result, the population of Delhi swelled (nearly 500,000 people
were added to Delhi?s population). Delhi became a city of refugees, with people
living in camps, schools, military barracks and gardens. The riots accompanying
the Partition led to the killing of thousands of people, and the looting and
burning of their houses. Over two-third of the Delhi Muslims migrated, and
almost 44,000 homes were abandoned. Their places were taken over by Sikh and
Hindu refugees from Pakistan. These refugees were mostly rural landlords,
lawyers, teachers, traders and shopkeepers. After Partition, their lives
changed as they took up new jobs as hawkers, vendors, carpenters and
ironsmiths. The influx of Sikh and Hindu refugee population and the outflow of
the Muslim population changed the social milieu of Delhi. An urban culture
largely based on Urdu was overshadowed by new tastes and sensibilities, in
food, dress and the arts.


Chapter 7-
Crafts and Industries

Q1. What kinds of
cloth had a large market in Europe?
Ans. Cotton and silk
textiles had a huge market in Europe. Indian textiles were by far the most
popular, both for their fine quality and exquisite craftsmanship. Different
varieties of Indian textiles were sold in the Western markets; for example,
chintz, cossaes or khassa, bandanna and jamdani. From the 1680s, there started
a craze for printed Indian cotton textiles in England and Europe, mainly for
their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness.
Q2. What is jamdani?
Ans. Jamdani is a
fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey
and white. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread is used.
Q3. What is bandanna?
Ans. The word
?bandanna? refers to any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or
head. The term is derived from the word ?bandhna? (Hindi for tying) which
refers to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of
tying and dying.

Q5: Fill in the
blanks
Answer
(a) The word chintz
comes from the word chhint.


(b) Tipu?s sword was made of Wootz steel.

(c) India?s textile exports declined in the nineteenth
century

Q6:How do the names of different textiles
tell us about their histories?
Ans: By tracing the
origins of the names of different textiles, one can find out a lot about their
histories. Take the case of muslin?a word that refers to any finely woven
textile. This word is a derivative of the city of Mosul (in present-day Iraq).
It was here that the European traders first encountered fine cotton cloth from
India, which was brought over from India by Arab merchants. Another example is
calico?the general name for all cotton textiles. This word is derived from the
word Calicut, a city on the coast of Kerala. When the Portuguese first came to
India, they landed in Calicut, and the cotton textiles that they took along
with them to Europe came to be called calico. Chintz, a printed cotton cloth,
is a term that is derived from the Hindi word chhint?a cloth with small and
colourful flowery designs. Bandanna, which refers to any brightly coloured and
printed scarf for the neck or head, is a term that leads one to the Hindi word
for tying, that is, bandhna?a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced
through a method of tying and dying. The widespread use of such words shows how
popular Indian textiles had become in different parts of the world.

Q7: Why did
the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian
textiles in the early eighteenth century
?
Ans:
Indian textiles had long been renowned, both for their
fine quality and exquisite craftsmanship. They were extensively traded in
Southeast Asia and West and Central Asia. From the sixteenth century, European
trading companies began buying Indian textiles for sale in Europe. There was
quite a craze for Indian cotton textiles in England and Europe, mainly for
their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness.


By the early eighteenth century, worried by
the popularity of Indian textiles, the wool and silk makers in England began
protesting against the import of Indian cotton textiles. At this time, the
textile industries had just begun to develop in England. Unable to compete with
Indian textiles, English producers wanted a secure market within the country by
preventing the entry of Indian textiles
Q8. How
did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in
India?
Ans: Effects of the
development of cotton industries in Britain on the textile producers in India:


(i) Competition ? Indian textiles had to compete with
British textiles in European and American markets.


(ii) High duties ? Exporting textiles to England became
increasingly difficult due to the very high duties imposed on Indian textiles
imported into Britain.


(iii) Capture of foreign markets ? By the beginning of
the nineteenth century, English-made cotton textiles ousted Indian textiles
from their traditional markets, thereby throwing thousands of Indian weavers
out of employment. The English and European companies stopped buying Indian
textiles and their agents no longer gave out advances to weavers to secure
supplies.


(iv) Capture of the Indian market ? By the 1830s, British
cotton cloth flooded Indian markets. By the 1880s, two-third of all cotton
clothes worn by Indians were made of cloth produced in Britain. This greatly
affected both the weavers and the spinners.


Thus, Indian textiles declined in the nineteenth century,
and thousands of Indian weavers and spinners lost their livelihood.
Q9. Why did
the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?
Ans.
The Indian iron smelting industry declined in the
nineteenth century for the following reasons.


(a) The forest laws implemented by the
colonial administration prevented the free movement of people in reserved
forests. Charcoal?an essential ingredient in the iron smelting process?could
therefore not be obtained easily.


(b) When in some areas the government did
grant access to the forests, the iron smelters were in return required to pay a
very high amount in tax to the forest department for every furnace they used.
This reduced their income.


(c) By the late nineteenth century, iron
and steel was being imported from Britain. Ironsmiths began using the imported
iron to manufacture utensils and implements. This reduced the demand for iron
produced by local smelters.


(d) In the late nineteenth century, a
series of famines devastated the dry tracts of India. As a result, many of the
local smelters stopped work, deserted their villages, and migrated, looking for
some other work to survive the hard times
Q10. What
problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its
development?
Ans. In the first few
decades of its existence, the Indian textile industry faced certain problems.
One such problem was that of competition from imported goods. Being in its
early years of development, the Indian textile industry found it difficult to
compete with the cheap textiles imported from Britain. Unlike other countries
where governments allowed local industries to grow by imposing heavy duties on
imports, the colonial government in India did not protect and support the local
textile industries in any such way.
Q11. What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World
War?
Ans. TISCO was able
to expand steel production during the First World War because the British
imports of iron and steel into India declined and the market for the steel
manufactured by it increased. During the war, the steel produced in Britain had
to meet the demands of the war. As a result, the imports of British steel into
India declined dramatically. At this time, the Indian Railways turned to TISCO
for the supply of rails. As the war dragged on for several years, TISCO had to
produce shells and carriage wheels for the war. To meet the demands of the war,
TISCO had to expand its capacity and extend the size of its factory. By 1919,
the colonial government was buying 90 per cent of the steel manufactured by
TISCO.

Chapter 8: Education and British Rule

Q1. Match the
following
Ans:    Pathshala                                 Gurus
            Rabinder Nath Tagore              Learning in natural environment
            Thomas Macaulay                   Promotion of English
education
            Mahatma Gandhi                     Critical
English education
            William Jones                          Respect for ancient
cultures
Q2.      State whether true or false:

(a) James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.             True

(b) The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as
a medium of higher education in India.   True

(c) Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important
aim of education.            False

(d) Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict
discipline.           False
Q3. What happened to the pathshalas’s as
the British introduced a new system of education?
Ans. Those schools who adopted the rule
were supported by the government with funds and those who did not accepted the
rule faced a lot of problem and were slowly closed.

Q4. Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history,
philosophy and law?
Ans. Orientalists
like William Jones studied ancient Indian texts on law, philosophy, religion,
politics, morality, arithmetic, medicine and the other sciences. This was for a
reason. They felt that Indian civilisation had attained its glory in the
ancient past, but had subsequently declined. In order to understand India, it
was necessary to discover the sacred and legal texts that were produced in the
ancient period. For only those texts could reveal the real ideas and laws of
the Hindus and Muslims, and only a new study of these texts could form the
basis of future development of India.
Q5. Why did James Mill and Thomas
Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?
Ans. James Mill and
Thomas Macaulay were critical of the Orientalist vision of learning. They
believed that the knowledge of the East was full of errors and unscientific
thought; that Eastern literature was non-serious and light-hearted; that no
branch of Eastern knowledge could be compared to what had been produced in
Europe, and especially in England; that the British government was wasting both
effort and public money in promoting Oriental learning as it was of no
practical use. They saw India as an uncivilised country that needed to be
civilised. For them the aim of education was to teach what was useful and
practical. European education was thus essential in India; English language
education was essential in India. Indians needed to be made familiar with the
scientific, technical and philosophical advances that the West had made; they
needed to be exposed to the great poets and writers of the West; their tastes,
values and culture needed to be changed. This, according to them, was the right
way forward.
Q6. Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that
English education had enslaved Indians?
Ans. English or
colonial education, according to Mahatma Gandhi, created a sense of inferiority
in the minds of Indians. It made them see Western civilization as superior, and
destroyed their pride in their own culture. Thus charmed by the West and by
everything coming from the West, the Indians educated under the colonial system
would end up being the admirers of British rule in India; thus, willingly
forgetting their enslavement, and enslaving themselves further.

Chapter 9- Women
Caste and Reform

Q1. What social ideas did the following
people support?
Ans. Rammohun Roy: Spread of Western education,Reforming hinduism

Greater freedom and equality for women,Upliftment of
widows,


Campaigned against the practise of sati,Critical of caste
inequalities.
Dayanand Saraswati: Reforming Hinduism,Supported widow
remarriage.
Veerasalingam
Pantulu
: Supported
widow remarriage


Jyotirao Phule: Education
for girls, Critical of the caste system, Critical of all forms of inequality,
Education for girls.
Pandita Ramabai: Critical of the treatment of upper-caste
Hindu women and widows.
Periyar: Campaigned against caste and social inequalities,Critical of Hindu
scriptures.
Mumtaz Ali: Promoting women’s education.
Ishwarchandra
Vidyasagar:
Supported widow remarriage,Education
for girls.
Q2. State whether true and false:
Ans. (a) When the
British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules
regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance or property, etc.         True


(b) Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in
order to argue for reform in social practices.              False


(c) Reformers got full support from all sections of the
people of the country.               
False


(d) The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in
1829.        False

Q3. How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote
new laws? How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new
laws?
Ans. The reformers
believed that changes were necessary in society, and unjust practices needed to
be done away with. They thought that the best way to ensure such changes was by
persuading people to give up old practices and adopt a new way of life.
Whenever they wished to challenge a practice that seemed harmful, they tried to
find a verse or a sentence in the ancient sacred texts that supported their
point of view. They then suggested that the practice as it existed was against
early tradition. For example, Rammohun Roy used ancient texts to show that the
practice of sati or widow burning had no sanction. Similarly, Ishwarchandra
Vidyasagar used ancient texts to suggest that widows could remarry.
Q4. What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to
school?
Ans. The following
were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school.


(a) They feared that schools would take girls away from
home, thereby preventing them from doing their domestic duties.


(b) They felt that travelling through public places in
order to reach school would have a corrupting influence on girls.


(c) They felt that girls should stay away from public
spaces.
Q5. Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the
country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?
Ans. Like the
reformers, the Christian missionaries too were involved in different reform
activities. They set up schools for the underprivileged sections of society
like the ?lower? castes and tribal groups. They questioned the various social injustices.
Like the reformers, they too were opposed by the various conservative sections
of society. Their attempts at reformation would have been seen by many as an
attempt to destabilise the existing Indian social order. Their reform
activities would also have been looked at with greater suspicion because of the
close link between their religion and their actions. Many would have felt that
at the heart of their actions was the agenda of religious conversion. So, the
missionaries would naturally have been attacked by many people across the
country.




However, as in the case of the reformers, there would
also have been many who would have supported the Christian missionaries and
their activities. A majority of this support base would have consisted of those
very people who benefited from the reform activities of the missionaries, such
as the untouchables. Intellectuals and reformers who themselves were involved
in various reform activities would also have supported the missionaries.
Q6. In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for people
who came from castes that were regarded as “low”?
Ans. The British
period saw the rise of the cities. Many of the poor living in the Indian
villages and small towns at the time began leaving their villages and towns to
look for jobs that were opening up in the cities. As the cities were growing,
there was a great demand for labour?labour for digging drains, laying roads,
constructing buildings, working in factories and municipalities, etc. This
demand for labour was met by the population migrating from the villages and
towns. There was also the demand for labour in the various plantations, both
within the country and abroad. The army too offered opportunities for
employment.




Many of these migrating people belonged to the low
castes. For them, the cities and the plantations represented the opportunity to
get away from the oppressive hold that upper-caste landowners exercised over
their lives and the daily humiliation they suffered.
Q7. How did Jyotirao and the reformers
justify their criticism of caste inequality in society?
Ans. The reformers
questioned the brahmanical texts that supported the caste system and the
inferiority of the so-called “low” castes? and the superiority of the so-called
“high castes”. They challenged the brahmanical claims to power and authority.
Jyotirao Phule
claimed that the lower castes were the true children of the land known as
India. According to him, the Brahmins who traced their genealogy back to the
Aryans were outsiders. The upper castes had therefore no right to their land
and power. Like Birsa Munda who envisioned a golden age free from diksus and
all other forms of evil, Jyotirao Phule too believed in a golden age free from
the Aryans and their ideas of caste. He also extended his criticism of the
caste system and linked it with all other forms of inequalities and injustices
prevalent not only in Indian society but also in Western society. A case in
point is his linking of the miseries of the black slaves in America with those
of the lower castes in India.
Q8. Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement
to free slaves?
Ans. Jyotirao Phule
was concerned with all forms of inequalities and injustices existing in
society?whether it was the plight of the upper-caste women, the miseries of the
labourer, or the humiliation of the low castes. By dedicating his book
Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves, he linked the conditions of
the black slaves in America with those of the lower castes in India. This
comparison also contains an expression of hope that one day, like the end of
slavery in America, there would be an end to all sorts of caste discriminations
in Indian society.
Q9. What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement?
Ans. Lower castes
were usually not allowed anywhere near temple gateways. During the temple entry
movement initiated by Ambedkar in 1927, the lower caste people not only entered
the temple premises but also used water from the temple tank, thereby causing
great outrage among the Brahmin priests. Through this movement, Ambedkar wished
to make everyone see the power of caste prejudice in society. He wanted to
prove that being of a low caste did not mean that one was not a human being, so
the sense of outrage was unwarranted. He wanted to show that like the upper
castes, the lower castes too had every right to equality. The ultimate aim of
such movements was to reform Hindu society; to reorganize it on two main
principles, equality and absence of casteism.
Q10. Why were Jyotirao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker critical of the
national movement? Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way?
Ans. Both Jyotirao
Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker were critical of the national movement as they
could barely see any difference between the preachers of anti-colonialism and
the colonial masters. Both, according to them, were outsiders and had used
power for subjugating and oppressing the indigenous people. Phule believed that
though the upper-caste leaders were then asking people all over the country to
unite for fighting the British, once the Britishers had left, they would
continue with their oppressive caste policies, thereby causing divisions
amongst the very people they were trying to unite. He believed that they only
wished for unity to serve their purposes, and once the purposes had been
served, the divisions would creep in again.
Their criticism did
lead to rethinking and some self criticism among the upper-caste nationalist
leaders. This in turn helped strengthen the national struggle, as free from
prejudices of caste, religion and gender, the leaders could unite and
concentrate their attentions upon the single aim of overthrowing the colonial
administration.

Chapter 10- Changes
in the Visual Arts

Q1. Fill in the blanks:
Ans. (a) The art form
which observed carefully and tried to capture exactly what the eye saw is
called portraiture.


(b) The style of painting which showed Indian landscape
as a quaint, unexplored land is called picturesque.


(c) Paintings which showed the social lives of Europeans
in India are called Kalighat paintings.


(d) Paintings which depicted scenes from British imperial
history and their victories are called history paintings.
Q2. Point out which of the following were
brought in with British art:

(a) oil painting (b) miniatures (c) life-size portrait painting (d) use of
perspective (e) mural art
Ans. Oil painting,
life-size portrait painting and the use of perspective
Q3. Describe in your own words one painting from this chapter which
suggests that the British were more powerful than Indians. How does the artist
depict this?
Ans. This
painting, like most imperial history paintings, aims to project the superiority
of the Britishers over the Indians. On the face of it, the painting relates to
an episode from the annals of history?the defeat and death of the ruler of
Mysore, Tipu Sultan. But this historical episode has been re-created and
re-presented in a manner that serves to further the glory of the colonial masters.
The artist makes use of several strategies to do so.




The first thing to note is that we are shown a dead and
defeated Tipu Sultan. He lies in some sort of a ditch with other dead men. In
contrast, we see the standing and victorious David Baird. So, quite simply put,
what we are presented with is the triumph and victory of the imperialist forces
and the defeat of all its enemies. In the war between the Indians and the
British, the British will always be ?the last ones standing?.




David Baird stands on an elevated platform while Tipu
lies literally at his feet. The royal clothes of Tipu are torn; he is without
armour or weapons. This is a way of saying that the land, which had so far been
protected by Tipu and others such as Tipu, is lying defenceless, at the mercy
of the British.


His tattered condition also signifies a lost regality. He
is now no more the king of Mysore. On the other hand, there is David Baird in
his formidable attire, signifying that Britain is the new ruler of Mysore, and
not only of Mysore but also of the entire land known as India. This is sort of
reinforced by David Baird?s forefinger, which points in an undefined, general
direction. Through the pointing of his forefinger, David Baird seems to say,
?There is still a lot to conquer and subdue?. Already, by pointing away from
the moment at hand, Baird shows that Tipu Sultan is part of the past. The
future beckons the British. Tipu Sultan lying in semi-darkness and David Baird
being lit up by the lantern are also strategies that seem to suggest the
invincibility and all-powerful nature of the coloniser. Tipu is the setting sun
while the East India Company (through the figure of David Baird) is the rising
sun. In fact, at one time, the colonisers believed that the sun never set on
the British Empire.




The play with light and shade tends to highlight only one
aspect of the battle, i.e., the victory of the imperial forces. The tragedy
that accompanied this victory is relegated to the darkness. So, the artist’s
attempt is to present a triumph and glory in its unmitigated form.
Q4.
Why did the scroll painters and potters come to
Kalighat? Why did they begin to paint new themes?
Ans. Around the early
nineteenth century, local village scroll painters and potters moved to Kalighat.
It was a time when the city of Calcutta was expanding as a commercial and
administrative centre. Colonial offices were coming up, new buildings and roads
were being built, markets were being established. The city appeared as the
place of opportunity where people could come to make a new living. These
village artists too came and settled in the city in the hope of new patrons and
new buyers of their art.


After the 1840s, there was a shift in what the Kalighat
artists produced from paintings related to mythology and religion, they began
to produce paintings on social and political themes. In these paintings, they
depicted the social life under British rule. This change was the result of
living in a society where values, tastes, social norms and customs were
undergoing rapid changes. Their paintings were their ways of responding to the
world around them. For example, Kalighat paintings of this period often
ridiculed the westernized baboo, criticized the corrupt priests and expressed
the anger of the common people against the rich.
Q5. Why can we think of Raja Ravi Varma’s paintings as national?
Ans.
Raja Ravi Varma was one of the
first artists who tried to create a style that was both modern and national. He
used the Western art of oil painting and realistic life study to paint themes
from Indian mythology. He dramatized on canvas scene after scene from the
Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. This portrayal of an Indian
consciousness is what makes his paintings national. This was perhaps one of the
reasons why his paintings were popular not only among Indian princes and art
collectors but also among the masses.
Q6. In what way did the British history paintings in India reflect the
attitudes of imperial conquerors?
Ans. The British
history paintings sought to dramatize and recreate various episodes of British
imperial history. These paintings celebrated the British: their power, their
victories and their supremacy. The imperial history paintings attempted to
create a public memory of imperial triumphs. Victories had to be remembered,
implanted in the memory of people, both in India and Britain. Only then could
the British appear invincible and all-powerful.
Q7. Why do you think some artists wanted to develop a national style of
art?
Ans. Many painters,
towards the end of nineteenth century, wanted to establish a stronger
connection between art and nationalism. To do so, they tried to develop a style
of art that could be considered both modern and Indian. This attempt to create
a national style of art can be seen in the works produced by Raja Ravi Varma.
He used the Western art of oil painting and realistic life study to portray
scene after scene from the Indian mythology. However, there never was a clear
consensus as to what defined an authentic Indian style of art. Nationalist
artists like Abanindranath Tagore rejected the art of Ravi Varma and felt that
a genuine Indian style of painting needed to draw inspiration from non-Western
art traditions, and try to capture the spiritual essence of the East. So, they
turned to medieval Indian traditions of miniature painting and the ancient
Indian art of mural painting. They were also influenced by the Japanese art
tradition.


There were others who felt that an authentic Indian style
of art would be one which explored the real life instead of illustrating
ancient books; one which looked for inspiration from living folk art and tribal
designs rather than ancient art forms. Ultimately, what all these artists aimed
at representing was a certain national consciousness with which each Indian
could relate.
Q8. Why did some artists produce cheap popular prints? What influence
would such prints have had on the minds of people who looked at them?
Ans. By the late
nineteenth century, mechanical printing presses were set up in different parts
of India. This allowed prints to be produced in large numbers. These prints
could therefore be sold cheap in the market. As a result, even the poor could
buy them. With the spread of nationalism, the popular prints of the early
twentieth century began carrying nationalist messages. Such popular prints
would have inspired people to fight British rule.

Chapter 11- The
National Movement: 1870’s-1947

Q1. Why were people dissatisfied with
British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?
Ans. There was great dissatisfaction
with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s. Some of the reasons for this
dissatisfaction are as follows:


(a) The Arms Act ? Passed in 1878, this Act disallowed
Indians from possessing arms.


(b) The Vernacular Press Act ? Passed in the same year as
the Arms Act, this Act was aimed at silencing those who were critical of the
government. Under this Act, the government could confiscate the assets of
newspapers if they published anything that was found  objectionable?.


(c) The Ilbert Bill controversy. In 1883, the government
tried introducing the Ilbert Bill. This bill provided for the trial of British
or European individuals by Indians, and sought equality between British and
Indian judges in the country. However, the white opposition forced the government
to withdraw the bill. This enraged the Indians further.
Q2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?
Ans. The Congress,
according to Badruddin Tyabji (its first president), was composed of the
representatives of all the different communities of India. Thus, it was an
organisation that wished to speak for India as a whole, in all its diversity.
Q3. When was Bengal
partitioned?
Ans. Bengal was
partitioned in 1905 by Viceroy Curzon.
Q4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
Ans. The Muslim
League resolution of 1940 asked for Independent States for Muslims in the
North-Western and Eastern areas of the country.
Q5.
Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to
struggle against British rule?
Ans. In the first
twenty years of its existence, the Congress was ?moderate? in its objectives
and methods. Its Moderate leaders practised what was called by the Radicals as
the ?politics of petitions?. They would raise various political, administrative
and economic issues, place their demands before the government, and expected
the government to take action accordingly.




They wanted to develop public awareness about the unjust
nature of British rule. They published newspapers, wrote articles, and showed
how the British rule was leading to the economic ruin of the country. They
criticised British rule in their speeches and sent representatives to different
parts of the country to mobilise public opinion. They felt that the British had
respect for the ideals of freedom and justice, and so would accept the just
demands of Indians. What was necessary was to express these demands and make
the government aware of the feelings of Indians.
Q6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different
from that of the Moderates?
Ans. The Radicals
were opposed to the ?politics of prayers? followed by the Moderates within the
Congress. They explored more radical objectives and methods. They emphasised
the importance of self reliance and constructive work. They argued that people
must rely on their own strength, not on the ?good? intentions of the government
(as was the stated policy of the Moderates). They believed that people must
fight for swaraj.
Q7. Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in
different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?
Ans. The call for
non-cooperation with the British was understood and enacted in different ways
by different individuals, classes and groups.


(i) Thousands of students left government-controlled
schools and colleges


(ii) Many lawyers gave up their practises

(iii) British titles were surrendered

(iv) Legislatures were boycotted

(v) People lit public bonfires of foreign cloth

In most cases, the calls for non-cooperation were related
to local grievances.


(i) In Kheda, Gujrat, Patidar peasants organised
non-violent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.


(ii) In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor
shops were picketed.


(iii) In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals
and poor peasants protested against the colonial state for restricting their
use of forest resources. They staged a number of ?forest satyagrahas?,
sometimes sending their cattle into forests without paying grazing fees.


(iv) In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought
to remove corrupt mahants?supported by the British?from their gurudwaras.


(v) In Assam, tea garden labourers demanded a big
increase in their wages. When the demands were not met, they left the
British-owned plantations.
Q8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?
Ans. In 1929, the
Congress resolved to fight for complete independence or Purna Swaraj. Mahatma
Gandhi knew that Purna Swaraj would never come on its own. It had to be fought
for. Knowing that the need of the hour was direct action, in 1930, Gandhiji
declared that he would lead a march to break the salt law. According to this
law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. Gandhiji
believed that it was sinful to tax salt as it was an essential part of food. He
led a march to the coastal town of Dandi, where he broke the salt law by
gathering natural salt found on the seashore, and boiling sea water to produce
salt. This march related the general desire of freedom to a specific grievance
shared by everybody, and thus, did not divide the rich and the poor.
Q9. Discuss those developments of the 1937?47 period that led to the
creation of Pakistan.
Ans. The developments
leading to the creation of Pakistan:


(i) A two-nation theory ? From the late 1930s, the Muslim
League began viewing the Muslims as a separate ?nation? from the Hindus.


(ii) Provincial elections of 1937 ? The provincial
elections of 1937 convinced the League that Muslims were a minority, and they
would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure. It feared
that Muslims may even go unrepresented.


(iii) Rift between Congress and Muslim League ? In 1937,
the Congress rejected the Muslim League?s proposal for a joint Congress?League
government in the United Provinces. This annoyed the League.


(iv) Wide mass support base for Muslim League ? In the
1930s, the Congress failed to mobilise the Muslim masses.


(v) Failure of talks ? At the end of the Second World War
in 1945, the British opened negotiations between the Congress, the League and
themselves for the independence of India.


(vi) Provincial elections of 1946 ? Elections to the
provinces were again held in 1946. The Congress did well in the ?General?
constituencies but the League?s success in the seats reserved for Muslims was
spectacular. This led to more demands for a separate nation for Muslims.


(vii) Failure of talks again ? In March 1946, the British
cabinet sent a three-member mission to Delhi to examine this demand and to
suggest a suitable political framework for a free India.


(viii) Mass agitation and riots ? After the failure of
the Cabinet Mission, the Muslim League decided on mass agitation for winning
its Pakistan demand. It announced 16 August 1946 as ?Direct Action Day.


(ix) Partition ? Finally, the demand for the Partition of
India was finalised, and ?Pakistan? was born.

Chapter 12- India
After Independence

Q1.
Name three problems that the newly independent nation
of India faced.
Ans. Three problems
that the newly independent nation of India faced:


(i) As a result of Partition, 8 million refugees had come
into the country from what was now Pakistan. These people had to be found homes
and jobs.


(ii) The maharajas and nawabs of the princely states
(almost 500) had to be persuaded to join the new nation.


(iii) A political system had to be adopted which would
best serve the hopes and expectations of the Indian population.
Q2. What was the role of the Planning Commission?
Ans. The Planning
Commission was set up to help design and execute suitable policies for the
economic development of India.
Q3. What did Dr Ambedkar mean when he said that ?In politics we will
have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality?
Ans. According to Dr
Ambedkar, political democracy had to be accompanied by economic and social
democracy. Giving the right to vote would not automatically lead to the removal
of other inequalities such as between rich and poor, or between upper and lower
castes. He believed that India needed to work towards eradicating all forms of
inequality in the economic and social spheres. Only then would the equality
granted by the Constitution in the sphere of politics (i.e., one vote for every
adult Indian citizen) be of any value. Otherwise, India would just be a land of
contradictions following the principle of ?one man, one vote and one value? in
its political life, and denying the principle of ?one man, one value? in its
economic and social lives.
Q4. Give one reason
why English continued to be used in India after Independence?
Ans. The question of
language is an important one in the Indian setup. India is a land of several
regional languages. In 1956, the Indian states were reorganised on the basis of
language. In such circumstances, imposing any one of the regional languages on
the entire country would have proved divisive, as it did in the case of
Pakistan (which imposed Urdu on the Bengali-speaking East Pakistan) and Sri
Lanka (which made Sinhala the sole official language of the country,
disregarding the Tamil-speaking minority who lived in the North of the island).


While discussing the language question in the Constituent
Assembly, many members wanted Hindi to take over as the sole official language
in place of English. However, those who did not speak Hindi were of a different
opinion. They did not wish Hindi to be imposed on them. A compromise was
finally arrived at: namely, that while Hindi would be the ?official language?
of India, English would be used in the courts, the services, and communications
between one state and another.
Q5. Find out the
achievements of India during the past sixty years?
Ans. How economic
development of India was visualised in the early decades after independence:


Objectives ? Lifting India and Indians out of poverty,
and building a modern technical and industrial base were among the major
objectives of the new nation.


Planning Commission and Five Year Plans ? A Planning
Commission was set up to help design and execute suitable policies for economic
development.


Mixed-economy ? A mixed-economy model was agreed upon. In
this economic model, both the State and the private sector would play important
and complementary roles in increasing production and generating jobs.


Focus on heavy industries and dams ? In 1956, the Second
Five Year Plan was formulated. This focussed strongly on the development of
heavy industries such as steel, and on the building of large dams.


The focus on heavy industry, and the effort at state
regulation of the economy (which was to guide the economic policy for the next
few decades) had many critics. This approach was criticised because:


(i) It put inadequate emphasis on agriculture

(ii) It neglected primary education

(iii) It did not take into account the environmental
implications of concentrating on science and machinery
Q6. Fill in the
blanks:
Ans. (a) Subjects
that were placed on the Union List were taxes, defence and foreign
affairs
.


(b) Subjects on the Concurrent List were education
and health.


(c) Economic planning by which both the state and the
private sector played a role in development was called a mixed-economy
model.


(d) The death of Potti Sriramulu sparked off such
violent protests that the government was forced to give in to the demand for
the linguistic state of Andhra.
Q7. State whether
true or false:
Ans. (a) At
independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages. True


(b) The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of
the Congress party.                  False


(c) In the first national election, only men were allowed
to vote.      False


(d) The Second Five Year Plan focussed on the development
of heavy industry.                True






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