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Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Civics- Class 7th

Chapter 1:    We and Our Environment

Q1. Answer the following questions:
(i) Why do people live in society?
Ans. People live in society to share joys and sorrows, to fulfil basic needs like food and shelter, to develop their culture, to keep themselves safe from external danger and to make their work easy by helping each other.
(ii) What is your role in society?
Ans. Our role in society is to work for the benefit  and welfare of whole society. We should work for its positive development.
(iii) In which society you want to live?
Ans. I want to live in an educated, civilized and developed society.
(iv) What is the purpose of government in society?
Ans. The purpose of government is to make laws, enforce them and decide matters according them. It also works for the welfare of society and brings reforms in society.
(v) What are various forms of government?
Ans. Democracy, dictatorship and monarchy are the various forms of government.
(vi). What type of government is in India?
Ans. India has a democratic type of government.
Q2. Fill in the blanks:
(i) A society is a group of people living in a place in a country.
(ii) A government is responsible for an overall welfare of society.
(iii) Family is the key element of your society.
(iv) Democracy is the most popular form of government.
(v) Sub-types of democracy are Ancient democracy, direct democracy, liberal democracy and representative democracy.

Chapter 2:    Making of the Constitution

Q1. Answer the following questions:
(i) What is the meaning of constitution? When did it came into force?
Ans. The constitution is a body or a set of laws and basic rules which provide guidelines for forming government and governance. The constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.
(ii) What is the meaning of Preamble? Is India a secular state? How?
Ans. Preamble means an introduction to constitution, in which the aims and objectives of the constitution are mentioned. India is a secular state because all citizens, irrespective of their religious beliefs are equal min the eyes of law and therefore all citizens are treated equally.
(iii) India is a Democratic country. How?
Ans. India is Democratic Country, because it allows its people to choose their government through their representative. It also gives a right to the citizen of the age of 18 years to contest the election and become the representative of the people.
(iv) In what sense is India a Republic Country?
Ans. India is a republic country, because it gives its people a right of freedom of thoughts, expression and worship. It also gives to elect their representative for a specific period.
(v) Explain how India is secular country?
Ans. India is a secular country, because all citizens of any religion have the right to practice and propagate their own religion and all citizens of any religion are treated equally and are equal in the eyes of law.
(vi) Explain the nature and type of our state.
Ans. Sovereignty, socialism, secularism is the nature of our state, because it gives all the right to its citizen to form the government through the election of representatives. All citizens are treated equally irrespective to their religion and our state is a republican and democratic type because it gives the freedom of thought, expression and worship to its citizens.
Q2. Explain in brief:
(i). Sovereignty:
Ans. The state or government who is free from external and internal control and in which the constitution is in the name of people and its ultimate source of all power is its people is known as sovereign government or state and the term is known as sovereignty.
(ii). Unity:
Ans. Unity means to come together to strengthen the power of a certain area, state or country. The National Objective of our state is to bring together the people of different religions, casts, languages etc. to strengthen unity among them for the progress of the state or country.
(iii). Integrity:
Ans. To work together with honesty for the progress of the country is known as Integrity.
(iv). Fraternity:
Ans. It refers to the state or quality of being fraternal or brotherly to others so that to enrich the National Unity.
Q3. Match the following:
(i). Our constitution came into force……………….26th Jan 1950
(ii). Our constitution was adopted on………………26th Nov 1949
(iii). The Chairperson of the Drafting Committee of the constitution was ………B. R Ambedkar
(iv). Time taken to frame constitution was………Nearly 3 years
(v). The constitution assembly had its first sitting on…………..9th Dec 1946
(v). Some constitutional experts of the constitution assembly include ………A. Krishnaswamy, B. R Ambedkar & K.M. Munshi.

Chapter 3:    Fundamental Rights, Duties, and Directive Principles

Q1. Answer the following questions in brief:
(i). Mention the fundamental rights that are given in our constitution.
Ans. Fundamental rights given in our constitution are as under:
1. Right to equality.
2. Right to freedom
3. Right against exploitation
4. Right to freedom of religion
5. Cultural and educational rights
6. Right to constitutional remedies
(ii). Mention any four freedoms enjoyed by the citizens of India.
Ans. The citizens of India enjoy the following four freedoms:
1. Express his thoughts freely.
2. Assemble and hold public meetings without arms.
3. Move freely and or go to any part of India.
4. Live and settle in any part of India.
(iii). What are special privileges give to the weaker sections of the society?
Ans. Special privileges are given to the weaker section for their upliftment. The constitution has abolished the practice of untouchability. Titles are also abolished and all citizens are said to be treated equally. A principle called Directive Principle of state policy has been made that directs the government to secure weaker sections that are economically or socially weak.
(iv). Why are the courts described as the protector of the citizen’s rights?
Ans. Courts are described as the protector of citizen’s rights because if a citizen is not allowed to enjoy the fundamental rights, he/she can go to the court to enforce his/her right.
(v). What do you mean by the Directive Principles of State Policy?
Ans. The Directive Principles of State Policy are the guidelines of government through constitution to improve the conditions of the people politically, economically and socially.
(vi). Distinguish between fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy.
Ans. Fundamental rights provide rights to every citizen of a country for his good life and self-development, while as the directive principles of state policy works for the improvements of weak people.
(vii). Mention any five fundamental duties of a citizen.
Ans. Five Fundamental duties of a citizen are:
i. To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and National Anthem.
ii. To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
iii. To defend the country.
iv. To promote the spirit of brotherhood amongst all people of India.
v. To safeguard public property.
(viii). Explain the following:
a.      Right to equality
b.      Right to freedom of religion
c.       Protection of natural environment
(a). Right to equality: It means the every citizen is equal before the law and all are protected by law.
(b). Right to freedom of religion. It means the every citizen has the right to worship, practice, and propagate his/her own religion.
(c). Protection of natural environment. It is one of the fundamental duties to protect the natural environment.
Q2. Tick ( ) the right statement:
i. True    ii. False     iii. False     iv. True      v. True

Chapter 4:    Our Identity

Q1. Answer the following questions in brief:
(i). What are the three colours of our National Flag? What do they signify?
Ans. Three colours of our National Flag are:
1. Saffron: This colour is the symbol of renunciation, valour, and sacrifice.
2. White: It stands for truth and peace.
3. Dark green: It represents life, fertility, and prosperity. In other words it stands for faith and strength.
(ii). What does the Chakra in our National Flag signify?
Ans. Chakra in the middle of the flag signifies motion, progress, and dynamism.
(iii). Write the significance of the following:
i.                    National Bird
ii.                  National Animal
iii.                National Tree
iv.                National Fruit
(i). National Bird: Peacock is National Bird of India. It is a symbol of grace, joy, beauty, and love.
(ii). National Animal: Tiger is National Animal of India. It symbolizes power, strength, and gorgeousness.
(iii). National Tree: Banyan Tree is the National Tree of India. It represents to lower down all the enemies and spread the brotherhood and strength like its roots. It also signifies togetherness.
(iv). National Fruit. Mango is the National Fruit of India. It is the symbol of sweetness in language and brightness in colours.
Q2. Match the correct pairs from the two columns:
i. Chakra ……………………………National Flag
ii. National Song  …………………..Bankin Chandra Chattopadhyaya
iii. National Emblem………………..Lion Capital of Ashoka Pillar
iv. Satyameva jay ate ……………….Devanagari Script
v. National Anthem …………………Rabindranath Tagore
vi. State Animal ……………………..Hangul
vii. State Bird ……………………….Black necked Crane
viii. State Flower…………………….Lotus

Chapter 5:    Government at the Centre

Q1. Answer the following questions in brief:
(i). Describe the composition of Rajya Sabah and Lok Sabah.
Ans. Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha are the two highest law making houses of parliament. Rajya Sabha is composed of 250 members (seats), of these 238 are representatives from states and Union Territories and other 12 are nominated by the president. Lok Sabha is composed of 543 members who are directly elected by the people through franchise.
(ii). What do you mean by residual powers?
Ans. Indian constitution provides three lists of subjects; Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List. Any subject which is not included in any of the three lists is known as Residuary Power. The Central Government has Residual Powers to prevail over the state law if any conflict arises between Centre and State.
(iii). How Bill become a law? Who finally signs the law?
When the Bill is passed by both the Houses (Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha), then it is sent to the President. After President’s signature, the Bill becomes law. The President finally signs the law.
(iv). Who is the Chief Executive of the Indian Union?
Ans. The President is the Chief Executive of the Indian Union.
(v). What are the powers of the President?
Ans. The President has the power to appoint and remove high officials of the Union, such as, State Governors, the Attorney General, the Chief Election Commissioner, other election commissioners, the Chief Justice of India and other Judges of the Supreme Court, chairman and other members of Union Public Commission. He/she has power to declare war, make peace etc. He/she has a power to grant pardon. He/she has a power to make law by signing the Bill.
(vi). Who is the head of Council of Ministers?
Ans. Prime Minister is the head of Council of Ministers.
(vii). Why is the position of Prime Minister Important?
Ans. The position of Prime Minister is important because he/she is to shape to the future of Nation. Entire Council of Ministers is under his/her control. Without him/her all the ministers goes out.
Q2. Match the correct pairs from the following two columns:
(i). Lok Sabha………………………550
(ii). Union list………………………97
(iii) Concurrent list…………………47
(iv). Rajya Sabha…………………..250
(v). State list………………………..66

Chapter 6:    Government in the States

Q1. Answer the following questions in brief:
(i). Describe the composition of State Legislature.
Ans. State legislature is either one house i.e., Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) or of two houses i.e., Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad). The Legislative Assembly should consist of more than 500 members. Our State (Jammu & Kashmir) has 114 members and it is bicameral legislative. The Legislative Council has 36 members.
(ii). How is Governor of State appointed?
Ans. Only President has the powers to appoint the Governor of the State, so the Governor is appointed by the President of the country on the advice of the Prime Minister.
(iii). Name two occasions when the Governor addresses the state legislature.
Ans. Governor addresses the state legislature on the first session after the general election and on the first session of every year.
(iv). How is Council of Ministers appointed?
Ans. Council of Ministers is appointed by the Governor on the advice of Chief Minister.
(v). What are the powers of Governor?
Ans. The Governor has the power to appoint the leader of the majority party as a Chief Minister. He/she has a power to address the State Legislature. He/she has a power to summon and dissolve the Legislature Assembly on the recommendation of Chief Minister. He/she has a power to pass the bill. He/she has a power to grant the pardon under the state law and reduce punishment.
(vi). Give two functions of Chief Minister?
Ans. 1. The Chief Minister supervises the work of the entire Council of Ministers.
2. He/she can exclude and include anybody in the Council of Ministers.
(vii). Who heads the administration of the union territory?
Ans. The administration of the union territory is headed by the Chief Minister.
(viii). What type of legislature do we have in our state (Jammu & Kashmir)?
Ans. Our state has a bicameral tyoe of legislature. It has Legislative Assembly having 114 members and Legislative Council having 36 members.
Q2. Fill in the blanks:
(i). The Governor can dissolve the Legislative Assembly on the recommendation of the Chief Minister.
(ii). A proposal in the form money bill can be introduced in the Legislative Assembly only.
(iii). The bill becomes a law in a state after getting the signature of the Governor.
(iv). The resignation of the Chief Minister automatically results in the dissolution of State Assembly.
(v). The governor can use discretionary power in appointing the Chief Minister.

Chapter 7:    Administrative Structure of the Government

Q1. Answer the following questions in brief:
(i). Why India is divided in different States and Districts?
Ans. India is divided into States and Districts for Administration convenience and efficiency because this division makes the Central Government easy to conduct the administration in small area.
(ii). Write briefly the functions of a District Collector.
Ans. The District collector is the head of the Administration. District Collector can function as a Collector, District Magistrate, District Administrative Officer, and District Department Officer. As a collector he/she is responsible for the collection and recovery of land revenue and dues of the government as a District Magistrate. He/she maintains law and order assisted by S.P Police and as a development officer he/she coordinates all the activities of different departments of the District and also prepares district plans.
(iii). What are the objectives of the economic planning?
Ans. The major objectives of the Economic Planning are rapid economic growth, full and stable employment and better utilization of natural resources.
(iv). Which are the three-tiers of the local governing bodies under the Panchayati Raj?
Ans. Three-tiers of the local governing bodies under the Panchayat Raj are:
(i). The Gram and Village Panchayat at the village level.
(ii). The Panchayat Samiti at block level which is known as Block Samiti.
(iii). Zila Parishad or Zila Panchayat at the District Level.
(v). Name the various programmes under taken by the government to alleviate poverty and increase in literacy.
Ans. To alleviate poverty and increase the literacy, government has under taken many programmes under centrally funded schemes. Social welfare schemes are aimed at improving the condition of poor. Another scheme is Mid-Day Meal Scheme up to the Middle School students to take care of the growth and development of poor children. Next is Rural Group Life Insurance Scheme, where the government would provide half the premium and construction of dwelling units. Other schemes are Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KBGV), Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS), and National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL), Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), and Rashtriya Madhyamika Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA).
Q2. Fill in the blanks:
(i). The principle unit of administration I a state is the district and its head is known as District Collector.
(ii). The head of the police department in the district is called Superintendent of Police.
(iii). The urban authorities consist of Municipal Corporation Municipal Committee and Nagar Panchayat.
(iv). The local government at three levels in the rural areas form the Panchayat Raj.
(v). Development can come about only through cooperation and participation of the people.

Chapter 8:    Media and Democracy

Q1. Answer the following questions in brief:
(i). Why there is indirect democracy in India?
Ans. There is indirect democracy in India because of its large size and population. Due to this large size and population people have to participate through their representatives in the functioning of the government.
(ii). In what way does the media play an important role in democracy?
Ans. Media play an important role in democracy. Media help people in expression and formation of their opinion and brings the elected representatives on right track. It promotes accountability in public life. It protects the democratic interest of the people.
(iii). What are the objectives of media?
(i). Separation of news from opinion and business interests.
(ii). It should not give one sided account of events.
(iii). Media should provide reports that are based on facts.
(iv). Avoid wrong interpretation and sensationalisation of news.
(iv). Why should there be some limitations on media?
Ans. There should some limitations on media otherwise it will pose a threat to the security, sovereignty, and integrity of the country, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order decency and morality for prevention of contempt of court and deformation.
(v). Give the basic principles of journalism.
Ans. Basic principles of journalism are:
(i). To seek the truth and report as per facts.
(ii). To avoid harm to the society and act independently.
(iii). To be accountable.
Q2. Fill in the blanks:
(i). The people participate through their representative in the function of government.
(ii). It is the media which help people in expression and formation of their opinion.
(iii). Broadly media is divided into print media and electronic media.
(iv). The media promotes accountability in public life.
(v). The media should give only reports that are based on facts.
(vi). Impartiality refers to non favouring one side or the other.

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