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Sunday, December 1, 2013

Geography 8th

Chapter 1 – Resources

1.  Answer the following questions:
(i).  Why are resources unequally distributed over the earth?
Ans. The distribution of natural resources depends upon a number of physical factors like terrain, climate and altitude. And these factors are not same everywhere and vary from place to place on the earth. Hence we find the distribution of resources unequal over the earth.
(ii). What is the resource conservation?
Ans. Using resources carefully and giving them time to get renewed is called resource conservation.
(iii) Why are human resources important?
Ans. People are human resources and human resources are important because people can make the best uses of nature to create more esources by applying knowledge, skill and technology.
(iv) What is sustainable development?
Ans. Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future is called sustainable development. In other words, carefully utilizing resources so that besides meeting the present requirements it also takes care of the need of future generations is what is known as sustainable development. 
2. Tick the correct answer:
(i). Which one of the following is not make substance a resource?
(a) Utility             (b) Value             (c) Quantity
Ans. (c) Quantity
(ii). Which one of the following is a human made resources?
(a) Medicines to treat cancer      (b) Spring Water               (c) Tropical Forests
Ans. (a) Medicines to treat cancer
(iii). Complete the statement.
Ans. Biotic resources are derived from living things.
3. Differentiate between:
(a). Potential and Actual resources.
      Potential resource                    Actual resource
i. A resource whose entire        i. A resource whose
quantity is not known                            quantity is known.
ii. Not being used at present,    ii. Being used at present.
but could be used in future.
iii. The present level of the      iii. The present level of the
technology is not advanced           technology is advanced
enough to utilize it.                                enough to utilize it.
iv. Uranium in Ladakh.                     Iv. Dark soils of Deccan Plateau.
(b) Ubiquitous and Localized resources:
      Potential resource                            Actual resource
i. A resource which is found      i. A resource which found
   everywhere                                          only in certain places.
ii. Eg. Air we breathe                         ii. Eg. Copper.

Chapter 2 – Land Soil, Water, Natural
           Vegetation And Wildlife Resource

1.  Answer the following questions:
(i). Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?
Ans. Temperature and rainfall are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation.
(ii) Write any two reasons for land degradation today.
Ans. Deforestation and the indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers in agricultural lands are two factors contributing to land degradation.
(iii). Why is land considered an important resource?
Ans. Land is among the most important natural resources. It provides habitation to a wide variety of flora and fauna. Human beings use land for various purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses and roads, and setting up industries.
(iv). What steps has government taken to conserve plants and animals?
Ans. Two steps that the government has taken to conserve plants and animals:
(a) Has set up national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves for protecting natural vegetation and wildlife; for example, the Kaziranga National Park in Assam.
(b) Has banned the killing of lions, tigers, deer, great Indian bustards and peacocks. It has also prohibited the trade of the species of plants and animals protected under the international agreement CITES.
(v) Suggest three ways to conserve water.
Ans. Three ways to conserve water:
(a) Rain-water harvesting.
(b) Reducing wastage of water.
(c) Replenishing ground water by promoting afforestation.

2. Tick the correct answer:
(i). Which one of the following is not a factor of soil formation?
Ans. (b). Soil texture
(ii). Which one of the following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes?
Ans. (c) Terrace cultivation
(iii). Which one of the following is not in favour of the conservation of the nature:
Ans. (c) Dispose polypacks after shoping
3.  Match the following:
i. Land use                Productive use of land
ii. Humus                  Organic matter deposited on top soil
iii. Rock dams          Prevent soil erosion
iv. Arable land        Land suitable for agriculture
v. Barrier                  Contour ploughing
2. State whether the given statements are true or false. If true, write the reasons.
Ans. (i) This statement is true. Plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture. Hence, these are densely-populated areas of the world.
(ii). This statement is true. Though water is present in abundance, fresh water is a scarce resource. Water availability is a serious problem in many regions of the world. Due to the wastage of water, deforestation, and the pollution and depletion of fresh water reserves (such as rivers and ground water), the availability of water is fast declining.
(iv). This statement is false. The described process is called shelter belts.
Intercropping is the process in which different crops are grown in alternate rows, and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.
(v). This statement is false. Human interferences and climatic changes for the most part adversely affect the balance of the ecosystem.

Chapter 3 – Mineral and Power Resources
1.   Answer the following questions.
(i) Name any three common minerals used by you everyday.
Ans. Three common minerals used every day:
(a) Copper ? Electric wires
(b) Talc ? Talcum powder
(c) Lead ? Batteries
(ii) What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?
Ans. Ores are the rocks from which minerals are mined. The ores of metallic minerals are generally found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.
(iii) Name two regions rich in natural gas resources.
Ans. Russia and the United Kingdom are the two regions rich in natural gas resources.
(iv) Which sources of energy would you suggest for
(a) Rural areas
(b) Coastal areas
(c) Arid regions
Ans. (a) Biogas energy for rural areas
(b) Hydel and tidal energy for coastal areas
(c) Wind and solar energy for arid regions
(v) Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.
Ans. Five ways in which energy can be saved at home:
(a) Switching off lights, fans and other electrical appliances when not in use.
(b) By seeing to it that electrical devices are operating efficiently; for example, defrosting refrigerator regularly and not keeping the refrigerator door open for longer than necessary.
(c) Using energy-efficient devices such as fluorescent bulbs and tubes
(d) Using energy efficiently while cooking; for example, keeping the lids of pans on while cooking.
(e) Unplugging electrical devices when not in use prevents leakage of electricity; thus saving energy.
2. Tick the correct answer:
(i). Which one of the following is not a characteristic of minerals?
Ans. (c) They are inexhaustible
(ii). Which one of the following is not producer of mica?
Ans. (b) Karnataka
(iii). Which one of the following is leading producer of copper in the world?
Ans. (c) Chile
(iv). Which one of the following practices will not conserve LPG in your kitchen?
Ans. (d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.
3. Give reasons – Why?
(i) Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams;
Ans. Dams help in creating hydroelectric power, which solves the energy problems of a region. They also help farmers as the water released from dams is used for irrigation. However, dams have a negative impact on the environment as well. They adversely affect the surrounding ecosystems by destroying the local flora and fauna, by displacing the local community, by changing the natural course of rivers, etc. Therefore, before a dam is built at a site, it should be ascertained whether its benefits justify the damages that it would inevitably cause to the various ecosystems. If they do justify, then steps should be taken to minimise the damages to the flora and fauna, and to relocate the local community. But if they don’t, then environmental conservation should be given the priority over the building of the dam.
(ii) Most industries are concentrated around coal mines.
Ans. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is widely used as a source of energy. It is also used as a raw material in several industries. Most industries are located around coal mines as being situated close to coal mines proves to be cost effective. Coal can easily be transported from the mines to the industries, and this reduces both time and cost of transportation.
(iii) Petroleum is referred to as “black gold”?
Ans. )The term “black gold” is used with reference to petroleum and its various derivatives. The word ‘black’ refers to the colour of petroleum in its crude form. The word ‘gold’ implies that petroleum and all the various products of petroleum (like diesel, petrol, kerosene, wax, plastics and lubricants) are as valuable to human society as the metal gold.
(iv) Quarrying can become a major environmental concern.
Ans. Quarrying is an extraction process by which minerals lying near the Earth’s surface are dug out. This process can adversely affect the environment in different ways. The digging involves clearing of vegetation. This destroys the top soil, which contains the humus required for plant growth. The quarrying process involves the use of explosives and earth-moving equipment. These cause noise pollution, and may also damage nearby buildings, dams or other such structures. The dust generated during quarrying and the fossil fuels burnt while operating the equipment contribute to air pollution, which in turn affects the health of the miners and the local population.
4. Distinguish between the following:
(i) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy:

(ii) Biogas and natural gas:

 (iii) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals:
(iv) Metallic and non-metallic minerals:

 Chapter 4 – Agriculture

1. Answer the following questions:
(i). What is agriculture?
Ans. The word agriculture is derived from the Latin words agri- meaning soil and culture-meaning cultivation or tilling of soil. It is defined as the science and art of cultivation of soil, raising crops and rearing livestock.
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.
Ans. The factors influencing agriculture are favourable topography of soil and climate.
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Ans. Shifting cultivation or slash-and-burn cultivation is a type of farming activity which involves clearing a plot of land by felling trees, burning the felled trees, mixing the ashes with soil, and then growing crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava on the cleared land. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves on to a new plot. This type of farming has the following disadvantages.
(a) Leads to deforestation
(b) Soil becomes susceptible to erosion due to deforestation
(c) Soil loses its fertility due to the erosion of the top soil
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
Ans. Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where a single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton is grown. Large amount of labour and capital is required in this type of farming. The produce is either processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world, like rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka, etc.
(v). Name the fiber crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.
Cotton and jute are the fiber crops.
Climatic conditions required for the growth of cotton:
(a) High temperature
(b) Light rainfall
(c) 210 frost-free days
(d) Bright sunshine
Climatic conditions required for the growth of jute:
(a) High temperature
(b) Heavy rainfall
(c) Humid climate
2.  Tick the correct answer:
(i)   Horticulture means
a.    growing of fruits & vegetables
b.    primitive farming
c.    growing of wheat
Ans. (a). Horticulture means
(ii) Golden fibre refers to
a.    tea
b.    cotton
c.    jute
Ans. c.    jute
(iii) Leading producers of coffee
a.    Brazil
b.    India
c.    Russia
Ans. a.    Brazil
3.  Give reasons:
(i)      In India agriculture is a primary activity.
Ans. In India agriculture is a primary activity because two-thirds of India’s population still depends on agriculture. We all know that agriculture includes growing of crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing livestock.
(ii)    Different crops are grown in different regions.
Ans. Different crops are grown in different regions because growing of crops depends upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology. Favourable topography of soil, climates also play an important role in selection of crops to be grown in that area.
4.  Distinguish between the followings:
(i)    Primary activities and Tertiary activities.
Ans. Distinction between Primary & Tertiary Activities:
Primary Activities
Tertiary Activities
·      Primary activities are those activities which are associated with the extraction & production of natural resources.
 Examples are - Extraction (mining), gathering, fishing, agriculture.
·     Tertiary activities are those activities which provide support to primary and secondary activities through services.
·   Examples are - Transport, communication, trade, banking, media etc.

(ii)    Subsistence farming and Intensive farming.
Ans.    Distinction between Subsistence & Intensive Farming:
Subsistence Farming - This type of farming is carried out to meet the needs of the farmer’s family. It is done generally on a traditional basis using low levels of technology and household labour. A variety of crops are raised in small quantity on a small plot of land.
Intensive Farming - It is a kind of subsistence farming only where a farmer cultivates a small plot of land by simple tools and more labour. Climate with large number of day’s sunshine and fertile soils help in growing more than one crop on the same plot in a year. This type of farming is common in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia


1. Answer the following questions.
(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?
Ans. The term ‘industry’ refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods (e.g., iron and steel industry), extraction of minerals (e.g., coal mining industry) or provision of services (e.g., tourism industry).
(ii) What are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?
Ans. Factors influencing the location of an industry:
(a) Availability of raw material  (b) Availability of land
(c) Adequate supply of water   (d) Adequate supply of labour
(e) Access to power     (f) Amount of capital
(g) Access to transport    (h) Presence of market
(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?
Ans. The iron and steel industry is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw materials in other industries. This is why it is referred to as the backbone of modern industry. Almost everything that we use is either made of iron or steel, or has been made using tools and machinery made of these metals.
(iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
Ans. The cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai because of its locational advantages. The warm and moist climate (ideal for spinning and weaving), the nearness to a sea port (important for importing machinery), and the availability of raw material and skilled labour are some of the factors that resulted in the growth of this industry in Mumbai.
(v) What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California?
Ans. Similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California:
(a) Presence of high quality educational institutions, and advanced scientific and technological centres
(b) Pleasant climate and clean environment
(c) Presence of good quality, skilled workforce
(d) Access to markets
(e) Well-developed and well-connected.
2. Tick the correct answer:
(i). Silicon Valley is located in:
(a) Banglore       (b) California      (c) Ahmadabad
Ans. (b) California
(ii). Which one of the following industries is known as sunrise industry:
(a) Iron and steel industry            (b) Cotton textile
(c) Information technology
Ans. (c) Information technology
(iii). Which one of the following is a natural fibre:
(a) Nylon             (b) Jute                                (c) Acrylic
Ans. (b) Jute
3. Distinguish between:
(i). Agro-based industries and mineral based industries.
Ans. Agro based industries: Industries which use products based on plants and animals as their raw materials are called as ‘Agro based industries’. For example, food processing, cotton textile, dairy products, leather industries etc.
Mineral based industries: These are the primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries are used by other industries. For example, iron and steel industry, copper industry etc.
(ii). Public sector and joint sector industry.
Ans. Public sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by the Govt., such as Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), HAL etc.
Joint sector industries: Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the Govt. as well as an individual or a group of individuals. Example - Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL).


1.  Answer the following queations:

(i) Why people are considered a resource?
Ans. People are considered a resource because with their demands and capabilities they can create new resources. Nature’s bounty becomes important only when people find it and make it useful for them. Hence, human resource is also considered an important and potential resource for the society.
(ii) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?
Ans. The way in which people are distributed across the earth is known as the pattern of population distribution. Actually more than 90% of the world’s population lives in about 10% of the land surface. Some areas are over-crowded and some are sparsely populated. Following are the various factors responsible for this extremely uneven distribution of population in the world:
a. Geographical factors – Favourable topography, availability of mineral and fresh water resources, favourable climate and soil fertility are some of the reasons affecting population distribution e.g., Indo Gangetic Plains, Diamond Mines of South Africa etc. are densely populated.
b. Social and Cultural factors – Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more populated. Places of religious and cultural significance also attract people e.g., Varanasi, Jerusalem etc
c. Economic factors – Places having more industries, transportation and communication facilities provide better employment opportunities. People are attracted to these places because of the above reasons e.g., Mumbai, Osaka etc.
(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?
Ans.  The world population has grown very rapidly particularly after 1800s. The reasons are growth in food supplies, improvement in medical facilities, reduced death rate while the birth rate remained the same.
(iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.
Ans. The birth rate and the death rate are two factors that influence population change. The birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 people while the death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 people. These are the natural causes of population change. When the birth rate is higher than the death rate, population increases. When the death rate is more than the birth rate, population decreases. When the two rates are equal, the population remains constant. Thus, the birth and death rates affect the balance of population.
(v) What is meant by population composition?
Ans. Population composition refers to the structure of the population of a particular region. The composition of a population helps us to know the number of males and females comprising the population, their age groups, educational and technological skills, occupations, income levels, health conditions, etc
(vi). What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?
Ans. The population pyramid or the age sex pyramid is a graphical illustration that is used for studying the population composition of a country. It shows the present number of males and females in a country along with their age groups. The age-group distribution of population tells us the number of dependents and the number of economically active individuals present in the population.
2.  Tick the correct answer:
(i). Which term does the population distribution refer?
(a) How population in a specified area changes over time?
(b) The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in specified area.
(c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.
Ans. (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.

(ii).  Which are three main factors that cause population change?
(a) Births, deaths and , marriage.
(b) Births, deaths and migration.
(c) Births, deaths and life expectancy.
(b) Births, deaths and migration.

(iii). In 1999, the world population reached:
(a) 1 billion      (b) 3 billion      (c) 6 billion
(c) 6 billion

(iv). What is population pyramid:
(a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
(b) When the population density of an area is so high that live in tall buildings.
(c) Pattern of population distribution in urban areas.
(a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.

3. Complete the sentences below using some of the following words.
Ans. When people are attracted to an area it becomes densely populated. Factors that influence this include favourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.

Know About Your State- J & K

A.  Study the local map of Srinagar and answer the following:-

1. What is the Longitudinal and Latitudinal extent of J & K?
Ans. The Latitudinal extent of J & K is 32° 17’ north and 37° 6’ and Longitudinal extent is 73° 26’east and 80° 30’east.
2. Name the neighbouring states/countries of J&K along with directions.
Ans. In the North side the neighbours are China and Afghanistan, in the west Pakistan and in the south side is Punjab (State) and Himachal Pradesh (state).
3. On which side of the Jhelum is the major portion of Srinagar situated?
Ans. Major Portion of Srinagar is situated on the north side of Jhelum.
4. On which side of Srinagar is the Qazigund – Baramulla railway line situated?
Ans. The Qazigund – Baramulla railway line is situated on the west side of the Srinagar.
5. In which direction is the Srinagar railway station situated?
Ans. It is situated in North South direction.
6. In which direction of Srinagar is Dal Lake?
Ans. It is in the direction of east.
7. In which direction is Kohimaran and Shankaracharya Hills?
Ans. Kohimaran and Shankaracharya Hills are situated on the south of the Srinagar.
8. Which tributary of the Jhelum meets Dal Lake in Srinagar and Where?
Ans. Vishav at Khanabal.
9. Which places are joined by the Bye-pass road in Srinagar?
Ans. Pantha Chowk, Hyderpora, Batamalo
10. In which direction is the Jhelum flowing?
Ans. North to south
11. Name the fort and the hill-lock situated in Srinagar?
Ans. Hari Parbat fort and Hari Parbat Hillock.
12. Where is Iqbal park located?
Ans. Iqbal Park is located near the Bakhshi Stadium Raj Bagh Srinagar.
13. Name the centrally located market of Srinagar?
Ans. Lal Chowk.
14. Where and in which direction is Kashmir University located?
Ans.  Kashmir University is located in west direction of Srinagar at Hazratbal.
15. Where and in which direction is Raj Bhawan?
Ans. Raj Bhawan is in the lap of Zabarwan Hill In the direction of west.
16. Where is the secretariat located?
Ans. Raj Bagh
17. Where is the Jamia Masjid located?
Ans. The Jamia Masjid of Srinagar is located at Nowhatta, in the middle of the old city.
18. Name the districts touching the boundaries of Srinagar?
Ans. District Budgam and District Baramulla.
19. Name some main roads of Srinagar city?
Ans. Main road Bemina, M A Road, Boulvard Road, Gupkar Road, Hazratbal Road.
20. Name the highways passing through Srinagar?
Ans. National Highway 1 (NH 1).
21. Determine the local and standard time of Ssrinagar?
Ans. Standard Time of Srinagar is UTC/GMT +5:30 Hours.
22. Name the lakes of J&K?
Ans. Kashmir Lake-Wular, Dal, Aanchar, Manasbal, Gangabal, Seshnag, Neelnag, Kausarnag; Ladakh Lake-Pangong; Jammu Lake-Mansar, Surinsar, Kailash.
23. What is the distance between Srinagar and Jammu?
Ans. 292.3 km
24. What is the length of the Highway Srinagar-Kargil-Leh?
Ans. 434 km
25. In which direction are Srinagar, Sonamarg, Gulmarg, and Pahalgam located?
Ans. Pahalgam-South-east direction, Sonamarag-North-west direction and Gulmarag-East.
26. What is the distance and direction of Aman-Sethu from Srinagar?
Ans. 20 km to the south.
27. What is the population of Srinagar?
Ans. 1269751 (Census 2011)
28. What class of city is Srinagar?
Ans. Srinagar is a world class wetland city.
29. What are the major challenges faced by Srinagar?
30. What do you know about the flood channel in Srinagar?
Ans. There are many Flood-channels in Srinagar.The Flood Spill Channel was constructed in 1904 to relieve the strain on the Jhelum in the city of Srinagar. By taking 2/3rd of the total flow in the river it helps the river Jhelum to regulate its water level while passing through the city of Srinagar. The Jhelum rises during floods and the Channel saves the city from being flooded.
31. What is the importance of Ram Munshibagh on the Jhelum?
Ans. The main area of Ram Munshibagh is situated on river Jhelum, it alarms the disaster officials about the flood situation in Jhelum river.
32. How far is Sangam from Srinagar?
Ans. 50 km
33. What do you know about the Weir site on the Jhelum?
Ans. A weir is a sort of dam. There is a weir on the river Jhelum in Chattabal in Srinagar. It was built manually by British engineers. Also known as Chattabal Navigational Lock, the needle dam is aimed to maintain a constant water level in the Jehlum besides providing constant supply of fresh water to Dal Lake. Aesthetically, the Weir has tourism interest as well as navigation interest for the government.
34. Which famous shrine is situated on the banks of Jhelum near Zaina Kadal?
Ans. Shrine of Shah-e-Hamdan or Khanqaah-i-Moulla.
35. Name the office complex on the Jhelum?
36. Name the tourist attractions in Srinagar city and its vicinity?
Ans. Some tourist attractions in the Srinagar and its vicinity are, Dal Lake, Nigin Lake, Shalimar Garden, Nishat Garden, Pari Mahal, Harvan Gardan, Gulmarag, Hari Parbat, Dachigam Parak etc.
37. Where and in which direction of Srinagar is the famous cable car Gondola?
Ans. Cable Car Gondola is in Gulmarag in the direction of west.
38. Name famous drinking water supply schemes of Srinagar?
Ans. Doodh Ganga Water Supply Scheme.
39. Where from Srinagar gets its electric supply?
Ans. Gandarbal

40. Where is the Kashmir Haat located?
Ans. Lal Chowk Srinagar.
41. How many bridges on the Jhelum connect the parts of Srinagar?
Ans. 7 Bridges.
42. What are the other names of The Jhelum?
Ans. Vitasta (Sanaskrit), Veyth (Kashmiri)

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